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Fumaric acid - Additive and acid regulator

Fumaric acid

Fumaric acid is a white, natural substance that is chemically synthesized from maleic acid. It occurs in several plants and fungi, and as a by-product of human metabolism in all living cells. Fumaric acid is an unsaturated di-carbonic acid.

Fumaric acid is a water-soluble compound. When it comes into contact with water, it readily dissolves and forms a homogeneous solution. This solubility is due to the presence of polar functional groups in the fumaric acid molecule.

It's important to note that the solubility of fumaric acid in water is limited by factors such as temperature and concentration. Higher temperatures generally increase the solubility of most solutes, including fumaric acid. However, at very high concentrations, the solubility may reach a saturation point where no more fumaric acid can dissolve in the water.

Yes, fumaric acid is generally considered vegan. It is a naturally occurring organic acid that is found in various fruits and vegetables. It is commonly utilized as a food additive in processed foods and beverages to enhance acidity, flavor, and shelf life.

Fumaric acid is typically produced through the fermentation of sugar or other carbohydrate sources by certain microorganisms. The fermentation process does not involve the use of animal-derived ingredients or by-products, making fumaric acid suitable for a vegan diet.



Fumaric acid has various applications in different industries. Here are some common uses of fumaric acid:

Food and Beverage Industry: Fumaric acid is used as a food additive, primarily as an acidulant and flavor enhancer. It is often found in beverages, fruit-flavored drinks, candies, gelatin desserts, baking powders, and other food products. It provides a sour taste similar to citric acid and helps to preserve and enhance the flavor of food and beverages.

Cosmetics and Personal Care Products: Fumaric acid finds application in cosmetic formulations and personal care products. It is applied as an ingredient in creams, lotions, and ointments, where it functions as a pH adjuster, buffering agent, and a skin-conditioning agent.

Resins and Polymers: Fumaric acid is employed in the production of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) and alkyd resins. It acts as a crosslinking agent and helps in enhancing the properties of these resins, including their strength, durability, and heat resistance.

Cleaning Products: Fumaric acid is utilized in certain cleaning products, such as detergents and dishwashing liquids. It aids in removing dirt, stains, and scale deposits due to its acidic properties.

Fumaric acid is classified as a food additive. It bears the designation E 297. Food additives are used to change the taste, odor, color, texture or shelf life of foods. However, the acid may only be used in certain foods where the maximum amount of fumaric acid is specified and may not be exceeded.

Fumaric acid, unlike organic acids, has the property of not attracting water. Because of this, E 279 is found in most foods such as dry powder for desserts, instant powder for teas or fruit drinks, fillings for confectionery and baked goods, and chewing gum. Fumaric acid is produced synthetically for use as an additive.


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